La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.

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Wittein her proposal of dual extended parallel process model, argues that response efficacy outcome expectation is the preeminent factor determining that a coping action will assume the course of the control process for objective harm and will not stay only at the level of emotional control action, which is a course of defensive motivation characteristic of the control process of subjective fear.

This model proposes the existence of a dual process of control in the course of actions a person accomplishes, whether with the aim of really avoiding danger harm control or with the aim of controlling the fear emotion when it is excessive fear controlregardless of the real avoidance of damage. If it is about the anxiety generated by the threat of losing a valuable item in the case of failure to pay a debt, the proximity enfrevista foreclosure or the presence of the collector would be the event signaling the probability of experiencing the concrete harmful situation, and leads to predict more exactly a possibility of efficacious coping with its consequences.

Psychophysiology46 Emotional pain is brought about by a cognitive attitude emphasizing loss, but with a parallel emphasis on hope and on attention to positive remnants in the very jotivacional in which the crisis is produced and in other zones of the vital field. Among these changes, we emphasize the following:.

These are very diverse beliefs, some very general, which can encompass all aspects of a person’s life, and others more specific and restricted to those aspects related to the CS. This distinction, of course, acquires importance as long as there is objectivity and certitude in the relation established between reinforcement expectations and outcome expectations, in which case immediate reinforcement is a real incentive leading to the outcome in the medium or long term.

Having these assessment instruments will make it possible to establish entrevistz appropriate DPP-CS is as an explanatory model of what occurs during a CS.

In a CSby definition, there is great personal commitment to what is at stake; this commitment is expressed in the high rank of importance that what is at stake has for the individual as a core theme of the crisis e. The interaction between personal entrevieta situational factors previously described generates some dynamics between incertitude, understood as a global condition of the person, and ambiguity, understood as an objective condition of the situation.

Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: Motivational Foundation

Nevertheless, this preeminence of the self-efficacy expectation is questionable, particularly in the case of behaviors approximating a superordinate goal in which a logical coherence between reinforcement expectation and outcome expectation must be anticipated.

Such a motivational restructuring might either assume a maladaptive path, becoming then a means of deepening the harm associated with the CSor a means of adaptation and construction of a new situation, assuming the opportunity characteristics that a number of Chinese proverbs refer to regarding crises.

In the perception of these stimuli different factors are important: Valence or valuation Lang, ; Lewin,the importance a person attributes to a determined element or outcome. Level 2 is formed by a dual system of information processing in which a central role is played by the cognitive economy throughout the information processing under the lead of essential biases and heuristics on the one hand System Aand lizagraga the information processing under the lead of schemata which self-perpetuate maladaptive schemata System Bon the other.


Cognitive appraisal is proposed in this model as the factor anteceding coping, which is a response process demanding lizararga effort by the person to attain stress management. For example, in a crisis generated by the kidnapping or disappearance of a loved one, ebtrevista about the event leads to entreista state of confusion in which it is quite difficult to lizwrraga control anticipations and reasonable decision-making, because of the paralysis of any anticipatory coping process, and practically for the only thing the person can do is to prepare for the worst of the possible consequences.

The type of CS that is addressed in this paper is defined by the presence of some harmful event that the person perceives as highly damaging or as threatening to produce a lot of damage, signals that something really serious has occurred and that something else might happen in an imminent way.

The label of emotional pain addressed to the subjective experience or feeling suffered in a CS emphasizes motigacional harmful role of stimuli that usually trigger a crisis more than the isolated nature of the experienced emotion, in a process in which the experienced distress becomes an initiating source of defensive reactions configuring the process of pain control and of protective reactions configuring the process of harm control.

The passing of time involves modifications in these appraisals, both by way of its effect on memory and because of the effect of reappraisals coming from the adaptive result of the coping the person has attempted. A handbook for practice and research 2nd ed. Universidad Nacional de Colombia Carrera 30 N.

In a CSthe triggering event has already occurred and, for this reason, temporal incertitude might be more related to the threat of new events, as in the case of an earthquake which might be followed by aftershocks. The developed model has been labeled dual parallel process in crisis situations DPP-CSand three main theoretical and methodological sources were adopted for its design, as previously developed in the study of thematic fields akin to that of crisis:. This theoretical source has been adopted by way of the characterization of a crisis as an event in which the occurrence of a harmful event generates the experiencing of a highly-intense negative emotional state, characterized in a generic way as emotional pain.

Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Incertitude is the probability a person attributes to the real occurrence of an event.

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Fear appeals and persuasion: Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Luis E. Specific beliefs of a enrevista more restricted to the particular situation around which the crisis occurs involve particular appraisals regarding the magnitude of harm, threats, or challenges, regarding what needs to be done to control the situation, and regarding the personal ability to manage the responses that are judged as efficacious.

These are ideas or conceptual schemata a person entrevitsa to interpret reality.

The CS requires the person to implement motivackonal strategies focused on the management of objective damage, as well as on the search for emotional relief, a consideration that gives rise to the name of dual parallel processing in CS DPP-CS.


This occurs when transforming the objective perception of the pain generated by the damage -which allows for options of personal management with or without therapeutic support- changing it into a subjective perception of emtrevista suffering.

In any CS the probability that entevista available information will generate incertitude in the person increases; in such a case, the role of situational ambiguity is mediated by subjective interpretations, with which the function of personal beliefs becomes more significant in the determination of the course that coping will take.

The fact of being exposed to an aversive event, generally denoting important loss, occurring in some vital area of great personal value, naturally urges the person to act to escape harm and avoid its worsening Bradley, ; the course of action an individual adopts will depend on the margin of harm reversibility in many occasions, actually irreversibleon the responses repertory a person has available, and on the established relation between those responses and the CSparticularly the ability the person attributes to the responses to modify the situation, and the self-attributed moivacional to get involved in the performance of the response.

An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. In the natural sequencing of relatively simple behaviors that are lizarrgaa to form complex actions, the consequences of complex actions being competent as a professional are long-term outcomes of the other consequences having studied for satisfactory passing of the courses.

Temporal incertitude is the ignorance about the moment in which the event is going to be produced. It is at this moment that an avoidance response e. English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail.

What can be done enteevista such a situation? Some examples of simple implementation intentions in a CS include maintaining job activity, praying, carrying out the triad of self-control, requesting help, emphasizing the lesser evil, and so on.

At an extreme at which emotional pain absence of relief and lack of clarity regarding the possibilities to cope with harm are predominant, a CS can lead the person along a path of extreme autonomic arousal where decisions can deliberately assume a path of self-destruction, further leading in both cases to an emergency situation within the CSor in a more general way, the person’s situation can negatively evolve assuming characteristics proper of an anxiety disorder or an affective disorder Barlow, Services on Demand Article.

Onset of the Crisis Situation The CS is initiated with the presence of a set of objective triggering stimuli. Level 1 describes automatic thoughts and cognitive distortions, which are cognitive-type products that are more accessible for the explanation of a disorder.

Regarding the role of cognitive appraisal, the viewpoint that we adhere to in the proposal of Ljzarraga is that of Lazarus and Folkman a, brelated to the functions of cognitive appraisal in the stress response.

Dntrevista concept has been used in the psychological literature particularly to refer to the parallel action of emotional and instrumental coping processes in a harmful situation, which determine the simultaneous presence of a pain-control process and a harm-control process.