Gettier problems or cases are named in honor of the American philosopher Edmund Gettier, who discovered them in They function as challenges to the. Edmund Gettier is Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. This short piece, published in , seemed to many decisively to refute an. In , Edmund Gettier challenged the whole notion of what constitutes knowledge. Until he published a short paper that year called ‘Is Justified True Belief.

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Edmund Gettier

His belief is therefore true and well justified. Correlatively, might JTB be almost correct as it is — in the sense of being accurate about edmjnd all actual or possible cases of knowledge?

Bernard Williams, “Utilitarianism and Integrity”. This theory is challenged by the difficulty of giving a principled explanation of how an appropriate causal relationship differs from an inappropriate one without the circular response edmunf saying that the appropriate sort of causal relationship is the knowledge-producing one ; or retreating to a position in which justified true belief is weakly defined as the consensus of learned opinion.

Edmund Gettier – Wikipedia

Sections 5 and 8 explained that when epistemologists seek to support that usual interpretation in a way that is meant to remain intuitive, they typically begin by pointing to the luck that is present within the cases. However, many critics such as Marshall Swain [] have argued that the notion of a defeater fact cannot be made precise enough to rule out the Gettier cases without also ruling out a priori cases of knowledge [ citation needed ].

Presents many Gettier cases; discusses several proposed analyses of them. The question persists, though: Jennifer Lackey – – Synthese 3: However, Gettier makes no attempt at saying how strong the evidence is, and if we can infer anything it is that the evidence is quite weak, and it could be argued that in both cases Smith was not justified in making the statements of knowledge he made.


Nevertheless, neither of those facts is something that, on its own, was known by Smith.

It would not in fact be an unusual way. And how strongly should favored intuitions be relied upon anyway? If these two conditions hold, then Smith does not know that h is true, even though i h is true, ii Smith does believe that h is true, and iii Smith is justified in believing that h is fettier. But it is equally clear that Smith does not know that e is true; for e is true in virtue of the number of coins in Smith’s pocket, while Smith does vettier know how many coins are in Smith’s pocket, and bases his belief in e on a count of the coins in Jones’s pocket, whom he falsely believes to be the man who will get the job.

Combating Anti Anti-Luck Epistemology. Request removal from index. Archived from the original PDF on Yet this was due to the intervention of some good luck.

Edmund L. Gettier, “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?”

On the modified proposal, this would be the reason for the lack of that knowledge. Smith realizes this entailment and accepts DEdmind and F on the basis of C.

Peter Gettjer, “Famine, Affluence, and Morality”. Ernest Sosa – – Philosophical Studies 20 3: Nevertheless, epistemologists generally report the impact of Gettier cases in the latter way, describing them as showing that being justified and true is never enough to make a belief knowledge. In Greek, justified meant to provide an “account” logostrue was “right,” and belief was merely “opinion.

And there is good evidence supporting — justifying — it. This is a troubling account however, since it seems the first statement I see a barn can be inferred from I see a red barn ; however by Nozick’s view the first belief is not knowledge and the second is knowledge. That is especially so, given that vagueness itself is a phenomenon, the proper understanding of which is yet to be agreed upon by philosophers.


All of this reflects the causal stability of normal visually-based belief-forming processes. These claims of intuitive insight were treated edmune epistemologists as decisive data, somewhat akin to favored observations.

Is it conceptually coherent to regard the justified true beliefs within Gettier cases as instances of knowledge which are luckily produced or present?

Truth, belief, and justifying have not yet been satisfactorily defined [ citation needed ]so that JTB justified true belief may be defined satisfactorily is still problematical, on account or otherwise of Gettier’s examples. But Smith has been told by the company president that Jones will win the job. Admittedly, even when a belief is mistaken it can feel to the believer as if it is true. Yet need scientific understanding always be logically or conceptually exhaustive if it is to be real understanding?

A recent overview of the history of attempted solutions to the Gettier problem.

Gettier Problems

But is that belief knowledge? Like the unmodified No False Evidence Proposal with which section 9 beganthat would be far too demanding, undoubtedly leading to skepticism. As it happened, the evidence for his doing so, although good, was misleading. Knowledge and Its Limits Oxford: Smart, “Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism”.